CEC Type 1B - "Old Rat Head" (1978-1983)

 

OVERVIEW

Type 1 is divided into two sub-types. Tokens that are generic (no city listed on token) fall into sub-type 1A, and those specifically listing a city fall into sub-type 1B. Instead of listing the city, the 1982 "Hav Pizza" token (182) lists the name of the franchisee.

 

Type 1B tokens were offered as a promotional incentive for new franchise owners. The 1979 franchise brochure states, "You'll receive 5,000 free tokens stamped with your location and date – a real collector's item – plus your own die to 'mint' as many more tokens as you need." Not every franchise center during 1978–1983 got them (it is unknown why), and some corporate centers got them (again, not sure why).

 

Type 1 exhibits the most varieties of any other type. In the early years of Chuck E. Cheese’s development, either the corporation was experimenting with different design features, or mints in the different regions of the U.S. created the designs resulting in different varieties.

 

OBVERSE DESIGN

Type 1B tokens feature the original "Old Rat Head" design of Chuck E. and bears the name "Pizza Time Theatre" on the obverse. Some tokens say "Pizzatime" while others say "Pizza Time." Each Type 1B token lists the city and state for which the token was created. Additionally, different font types, sizes, and weights were used.

 

 

REVERSE DESIGN

The reverse bears the motto "In Pizza We Trust", and states "25¢ Play Value", "25¢ Play", or "25¢ Value". Different font types, sizes, and weights were used.

 

 

METAL COMPOSITION

Different metal compositions were used including brass, gilt brass, bronze, gilt bronze, and nickel plated brass. It is not known for sure why the nickel plated brass tokens were produced, but it is believed they were produced by the mints as proof copies, and included in each shipment. These tokens are listed with an asterisks and a note at the bottom of the page.

 

Some tokens can be found that are plated in zinc or copper. These tokens were plated after leaving the mint for a Pizza Time Theatre promotional event. In addition, some Type 1B tokens can be found spray-painted by individual restaurants for use as control tokens. These tokens are listed on the CEC Nonstandard Issue page.

 

 

TOKEN DIAMETERS

Type 1B tokens exist only in .984 diameter.

 

 

DIE ALIGNMENT

The only Type 1B token struck in coin orientation is 143B. The rest were struck in medal orientation.

 

TYPE 1B RARITIES

Extremely Rare

  1. 1979 Santa Anna, CA token (30 thought to exist, but only 5 found!) – 134B

  2. All nickel plated tokens.

  3. 1980 Tucson, Ariz. "Play" 4 dots variety token – 151B

  4. 1981 Mobile, AL "Value" token – 168B

Rare

  1. 1980 Tucson, Ariz. "Play" 3 dots variety token – 150B

  2. 1983 Maplewood, MN token – 186B

  3. 1980 Kansas City token – 140B

 

Scarce

  1. 1981 Clearwater, FLA token – 156B

  2. 1982 New Hope, Minn. tokens – 184B and 185B

  3. Bz and gBz 1978 San Jose tokens – 125Bz and 125gBz

CEC Type 1B Tokens

Date: 1978  |  Catalog #s: 125gB, 125Bz, 125gBz, 125N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizzatime Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: San Jose, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Value, 1978

Variety: N/A

125.JPG

Date: 1979  |  Catalog #s: 126B, 126Bz

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Concord, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1979

Variety: N/A

126.JPG

Date: 1979  |  Catalog #s: 127Bz, 127N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Concord, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Value, 1979

Variety: N/A

127.JPG

Date: 1979  |  Catalog #s: 128B, 128N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Huntington Beach, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1979

Variety: Narrow Spacing

128.JPG

Date: 1979  |  Catalog #s: 129B, 129N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Huntington Beach, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1979

Variety: Wide Spacing

129.JPG

Date: 1979  |  Catalog #s: 130B, 130N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Reno, Nevada

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1979

Variety: N/A

130.JPG

Date: 1979  |  Catalog #s: 131B, 131N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Sacramento, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1979

Variety: N/A

131.JPG

Date: 1979  |  Catalog #s: 132B, 132N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: San Jose, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1979

Variety: N/A

132.JPG

Date: 1979  |  Catalog #s: 133Bz, 133N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: San Jose, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Value, 1979

Variety: N/A

133.JPG

Date: 1979  |  Catalog #s: 134B

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Santa Anna, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1979

Variety: N/A

134B.jpg

Date: 1979  |  Catalog #s: 135B, 135N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Stockton, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1979

Variety: N/A

135.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 136B, 136N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Arlington, TX.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1980

Variety: N/A

136.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 137B, 137N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Fremont, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1980

Variety: N/A

137.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 138B

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Fresno, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1980

Variety: High "N" in Fresno

138.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 139B

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Fresno, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1980

Variety: Low "N" in Fresno

139.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 140B, 140N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Kansas City

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1980

Variety: N/A

140.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 141B, 141N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Long Beach, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1980

Variety: N/A

141.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 142B, 142N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Maple Heights, Ohio

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1980

Variety: N/A

142.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 143B, 143N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Ogden, UT.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1980

Variety: N/A

143.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 144B, 144N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Raleigh, N.C.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1980

Variety: N/A

144.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 145B, 145N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Reno-Sparks, NV.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1980

Variety: N/A

145.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 146B, 146N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: San Ramon, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1980

Variety: N/A

146.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 147B, 147N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Santa Rosa, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1980

Variety: N/A

147.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 148B, 148N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Simi Valley, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1980

Variety: N/A

148.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 149B, 149N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizzatime Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Sunnyvale, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1980

Variety: N/A

149.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 150B

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Tucson, Ariz.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1980

Variety: 3 Dots

150.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 151B

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Tucson, Ariz.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play, 1980

Variety: 4 Dots

Need Photo Landscape.jpg

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 152B

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Tucson, Ariz.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1980

Variety: N/A

152.JPG

Date: 1980  |  Catalog #s: 153B, 153N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Westminster, CO.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1980

Variety: N/A

153.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 154B, 154N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizzatime Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Burlington, Ontario

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

154.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 155B, 155N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Citrus Heights, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

155.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 156B, 156N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Clearwater, FLA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

156.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 157B

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Concord, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

157.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 158B, 158N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Fremont, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

158.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 159B, 159N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Ft. Myers, FLA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

159.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 160B, 160N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Fullerton, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

160.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 161B, 161N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Garden Grove, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

161.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 162B, 162N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizzatime Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Hayward, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

162.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 163B, 163N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Huntington Beach, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

163.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 164B, 164N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese, 

Obverse Text: Jacksonville, FLA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

164.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 165B, 165N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Lake Forest, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

165.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 166B, 166N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizzatime Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Memphis, TN.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

166.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 167B, 167N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Mobile, ALA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

167.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 168B, 168N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Mobile, ALA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

168.jpg

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 169B, 169N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Modesto, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

169.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 170B, 170N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: New Hope, Minn

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

170.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 171B, 171N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Pinole, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

171.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 172B, 172N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Sacramento, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

172.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 173B, 173N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Salt Lake City, Utah

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

173.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 174B, 174N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: San Diego, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

174.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 175B, 175N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: San Jose, CA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

175.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 176B, 176N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Tucson, Ariz.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

176.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 177B, 177N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Westland, Mich.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

177.JPG

Date: 1981  |  Catalog #s: 178B, 178N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Winterpark, FLA.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1981

Variety: N/A

178.JPG

Date: 1982  |  Catalog #s: 179B, 179N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Blaine, MN.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1982

Variety: N/A

179.JPG

Date: 1982  |  Catalog #s: 180B, 180N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizzatime Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Burlington, Ontario

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1982

Variety: N/A

180.JPG

Date: 1982  |  Catalog #s: 181B, 181N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Burnsville, MN.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1982

Variety: N/A

181.JPG

Date: 1982  |  Catalog #s: 182B

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Hav Pizza

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1982

Variety: N/A

182.JPG

Date: 1982  |  Catalog #s: 183B, 183N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Maplewood, MN.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1982

Variety: N/A

183.JPG

Date: 1982  |  Catalog #s: 184B, 184N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: New Hope, Minn.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1982

Variety: Short Denticles on Reverse

184.JPG

Date: 1982  |  Catalog #s: 185B, 185N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: New Hope, Minn.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1982

Variety: Long Denticles on Reverse

185.JPG

Date: 1983  |  Catalog #s: 186B, 186N*

Diameter: 0.984  |  Chuck E. Version: Old Rat

Obverse Text: Pizza Time Theatre, Chuck E. Cheese,

Obverse Text: Maplewood, MN.

Reverse Text: In Pizza We Trust, 25¢ Play Value, 1983

Variety: N/A

186.JPG

*It is thought that all the Type 1 nickel plated tokens were actually mint proof tokens. One or two proof tokens were included in each batch of tokens delivered to a restaurant. This suggests they were technically not standard production tokens and would be extremely rare. Perhaps they were used by the mint to test the final design of a die before running a complete batch.

Copyright © 2018 by Joe Lewis